Publication Title: Social Science and Medicine
Abstract: This paper examines the co-occurrence of incontinence and two potential sources of trauma: sexual violence and female genital cutting in Malawi, Rwanda, Uganda, and Ethiopia. Results indicate that sexual violence is a significant determinant of incontinence in Rwanda and Malawi, but not in Uganda. In contrast, no evidence is found that female genital cutting contributes to incontinence. Results point to the importance of reinforcing prevention programs that seek to address prevention of sexual violence and for the integration of services to better serve women experiencing both sexual violence and incontinence.