A variety of PopPov projects answered research questions about migration, health, and economic development; networks, and other topics related to the intersection of health and economic development.
This map is is a visual representation of the countries where the PopPov network of researchers have studied social, health, and economic issues. Each red pin represents a PopPov project and is located in the country of study.
This study integrates theories of gender, socialization, and the life course to ask whether fathers of firstborn adolescent sons are more prone to risky sexual behaviors than fathers of firstborn adolescent daughters. Creating a natural experiment to observe the effect of the sex of firstborn offspring on fathers’ sexual behavior and health, the study uses data from thirty-six Demographic and Health Surveys collected from sub-Saharan Africa between 2003 and 2011 —where STD rates remain substantially higher than elsewhere.
This research addresses the impact of economic enforcement of the wife within the household, as related to the use of contraception, fertility, and incidents of sexual, emotional, and physical abuse. When social insurance eligibility depends on marital status, this is a government intervention into the marriage market.
This study investigates childbearing patterns among rural South African women, especially the relationship between HIV prevalence, AIDS mortality, and antiretroviral therapies.
At the macro level, recent research has demonstrated a positive impact of remittances on poverty reduction in developing countries. Research on the impacts of remittances at the household level has provided mixed results, with some finding that migration would increase inequalities, whereas others have found positive impacts of remittances on poverty reduction. The objective of this project is to build upon this body of research and determine whether poor households are more or less likely to send migrants, and to assess whether poor households are more or less likely to benefit from remittances.
Health risks are among one of the most severe risks confronting poor households in sub-Saharan Africa, especially in areas where affordable and quality health care is scarce and access to health insurance is limited. Individuals may travel long distances or even move to seek treatment, escape from infectious diseases, or help their families overcome financial hardship. The research investigated the role of migration in dealing with the risks of chronic and acute illnesses, injuries, hospitalizations, and communicable diseases that may not only affect the health of people but also their economic situation.
While research has delved into many of the socioeconomic and demographic consequences of falling fertility rates, relatively little is known about its implications on the structures and meanings of relationships between people. A fundamental structural effect of having fewer siblings is that individuals have a smaller pool of available close-kin, which alters with whom they can construct support networks. This project investigates if individuals with fewer siblings experience, negotiate, and construct meanings of relationships differently from those with larger families.
The set of decisions made in the transition to adulthood—including when to exit school, when to marry, and when to seek employment—is critical with respect to a young person’s wellbeing over the life course. The goal of this research project was to collect innovative longitudinal data on a sample of young adults in Malawi to understand the links between non-marital relations and sexual experiences, transitions into marriage, socioeconomic status (both prior to and after marriage), and the spread of HIV/AIDS.
The broad objective of the study was to investigate declining marriages in post-apartheid South Africa. The specific objectives were threefold. First, using the independent surveys from 1995 to 2006 and employing the Age-Period-Cohort Model, the study disentangled marriage trends into age, period, and cohort effects to determine whether the change in marital patterns observed in the post-apartheid period was a real shift in marital behavior and not just a trend driven by change in sampling designs and erratic fluctuations.
The study uses a new dataset (SAGE) to estimate prevalence of care among older adults in six lower and middle income countries: Mexico, Ghana, South Africa, Russia, India, and China. It examines differences in care needs and provision across these countries whether care is differentially provided by gender across all SAGE countries and hypothesizes that women are more likely to provide care than men across all SAGE countries.
This project focuses on the early nutritional status of children and its effect on adult productivity by using longitudinal data to link early nutritional intake, nutritional status, and adult outcomes including productivity. A model of human capital investment and activity choice is used to explain facts describing gender differentials in the levels and returns to human capital investments and occupational choice. These include the higher return to and level of schooling, the small effect of healthiness on wages, and the large effect of healthiness on schooling for females relative to males.
Nigeria ranks second among sub-Saharan African countries in the number of people living with HIV/AIDS and is estimated to have the highest number of AIDS orphans, which may exceed 2 million by 2015. The social and developmental implications of this situation pose a serious challenge for the fight against the disease and its economic impact on families and the nation. This study aims to evaluate the cost of care, social consequences, and coping strategies of AIDS orphans living with their surviving parent or another family in selected rural and urban towns of southwestern Nigeria for the purpose of providing data that may be used to formulate policies and programs that will address the problems of AIDS orphans and related consequences.
There is an unequal sex ratio in India, which is due to a traditionally strong preference for sons, excess mortality for girls, and declining fertility. The rate of sex-selective abortions has risen due to legal abortion (from 1971), access to prenatal sex determination, and the increasing sex ratio at birth in India. Previous research on sex-selective abortions has ignored the interactions between fertility, birth spacing, and sex-selection. This paper presents a novel approach that jointly estimates the determinants of sex selective abortions, fertility, and birth spacing, using data from India’s National Family and Health Surveys.
China’s fertility decline over the last 30 years is considered to be the most rapid sustained decline ever recorded worldwide, a dramatic change which results from two sets of causes: rapid socioeconomic improvements and a stringently enforced birth planning policy. This change is so noteworthy that it tends to draw attention away from another dramatic feature of China’s experience – the exceedingly wide geographic variation that still persists. This study applies exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA) and spatial panel regression models to examine country-level variation in fertility rates in China.
When sons move away from their village, the general hypothesis is that parents become more willing to marry their daughters to someone who lives nearby in order to secure care support in old-age when necessary, a result of a missing market for care. This paper examines the effect of brother’s migration on the marriage patterns of sisters in a rural area in Bangladesh.